Production of seed materials

New mechanized line and technology for the preparation of high-quality seed 


Kyrpa M.Y., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences Institute of Steppe Agriculture of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine

Mishchenko M.I., Chairman of the Board PrJSC Khorolskiy mekhanichniy zavod

Bondar L.N., PhD student

 

The quality and yield of finished products, especially seed, largely depends on its post-harvest processing technology.  In the processing system, the largest volumes are occupied by the separation of grain masses, their cleaning and sorting. Various machines are offered for these operations, which are primarily designed for large enterprises. For ordinary farms of seed production, the range of offered machines, especially in the complex, is extremely limited. Therefore, a new mechanized line and technology for the preparation of high-quality sowing material for cereals, legumes and oilseeds, as well as corn hybrids and their original forms, is proposed for such farms.

In the technology of growing grain crops, a prerequisite is the use of high-quality seed for sowing. Observing this condition, you can get fast uniform shoots, developed plants with a high level of productivity. It has been established that when sowing with high-quality seeds, field germination increases by 8-12%, the yield increase is 18-20% and more [1-3].

The quality of seeds is determined by various indicators, which can be divided into basic and additional ones. The main ones include those thar are established by regulatory documents for finished products - standards, technical conditions, instructions depending on a specific culture. For grain crops the main indicators are those that characterize the degree of seed germination - germination, germination energy (seed vigor) and growth strength.

Additional indicators are usually taken into account during the processing and preparation of seed, they serve to check the correctness of the technology. These include the size and volume of the seeds, the weight and specific gravity of the seed, their integrity or the degree of injury. Additional indicators are directly related to the main indicators, with the deterioration of the former, as a rule, the latter deteriorate.

Quality indicators largely depend on how the harvesting and post-harvest processing of the seed is carried out. Only if the entire technical and technological system is observed, which is optimal for a particular crop, can high-quality seed be obtained from seed.

The technical and technological system of post-harvest processing includes a number of individual operations that significantly affect the quality of grain. The range of operations and their parameters depend on the characteristics of a particular culture, its condition and purpose. The analysis shows that the most saturated system of post-harvest finishing is in corn when preparing seed (Table 1).

Reception and placement of grain. It is a mandatory operation for all crops and grain for any purpose. But it is of particular importance when supplying food and seed grain, with the aim of isolating and forming lots of different quality.


 Table 1. The range of basic technological operations in the system of post-harvest grain processing for various purposes

Operation

Spiked cereals, grain legumes, cereals, sunflower

Corn

grain

seed

grain

seed

Food-technical

Feed

Food-technical

Feed

Reception and placing

+

+

+

+

+

+

Cleaning:

   - pre-cleaning

   - primary

 

+

+

 

+

-

 

+

+

 

+

+

 

+

-

 

+

+

Sorting:

    - main

    - special

 

+

-

 

-

-

 

+

+

 

+

-

 

-

-

 

+

+

Drying

+

+

+

+

+

+

Thrashing

-

-

-

+

+

+

Canning

+

+

-

+

+

-

Storage:

   - dry grain

   - wet grain

 

+

-

 

+

+

 

+

-

 

+

-

 

+

+

 

+

-

Chemical treatment

+

-

+

+

-

+

Packing

-

-

+

-

-

+

 

Cleaning. Practically the entire volume of grain coming from the field is subject to preliminary cleaning. Even when harvesting dry grain, preliminary cleaning is necessary to separate impurities that are unstable during storage and to remove dust from the grain mass. The technical and technological feature of the operation is the high productivity of the process, which allows in a short time to process large batches of grain quickly.

Primary cleaning is necessary for food and seed grains and allows you to isolate the main grain in the range of passage from the top sieve and exit from the bottom. It differs from the preliinary (pre-cleaning) one both in the operating mode and in the degree of cleaning.

Sorting. Sorting, like cleaning, is based on general technical signs of divisibility and the principles of sorting grain masses. It differs from cleaning in that the main pure grain is divided into separate fractions of different quality. In the classical scheme, for sorting, it is required to have 3 sieves, of which the middle one plays the main role, the rest - for the processing of the grain mass. However, if absolutely clean grain comes, the sorting function can be performed on two sieves.

In conventional sorting, well-known divisibility criteria are used, first of all, linear dimensions, weight,  windage of weevil (seed). When special sorting - specific gravity, shape, surface nature, color, electrical conductivity. This can also include the calibration of the seed of some crops.

Drying. It is an operation that radically affects the quality and safety of products. The importance of drying is especially evident when harvesting late-ripening crops - the germination and seed yield increases, the loss of dry matter during storage decreases. In connection with the requirements of energy saving, the main ways of developing the operation are to reduce the specific consumption of traditional energy materials and the development of alternative energy sources. One of the types of drying is also ventilation in the case when the actual moisture content of the grain is more than equilibrium.

Thrashing. It is carried out in the process of harvesting corn for food and fodder purposes, the ears are threshed during direct combining in the field, as well at the permanent establishment, in the case of transporting the crop from the field. The seed corn is threshed only in the permanent establishment, after the cobs are dried to a dry state.

Canning. Includes operations aimed at a significant and rapid slowdown or complete cessation of biological processes occurring in the grain mass. The conservation effect is most often achieved by sealing and changing the gas composition in intergranular spaces. With such canning, it is possible to add various chemicals that enhance its effectiveness.

Storage. In practice, grain is stored dry and wet conditions. The dry state parameters are determined by the culture, its normative moisture content and storage duration. It is safest to store grain for feed purposes when wet, especially when combined with canning. There is a scientific and practical experience in canning - storage of wet corn grain, which can significantly reduce energy costs, eliminate completely thermal dryingwhen harvesting with a moisture content of 20-40%.

Chemical treatment. A forced technological operation, but at the same time practically necessary, especially for the protection of the seed during storage and sown in the field. It can be combined with the function of stimulating and improving the quality of finished products.

Packing. The operation, despite its technological simplicity, is important in terms of marketing and sales of finished products. Partially fulfills  the function of protection and storage duration, primarily of the seed.

The listed range of technological operations must be provided with an appropriate material and technical base .

The analysis shows that of all post-harvest processing operations, the largest volumes fall on the separation of grain masses, their cleaning and sorting.

Separation is carried out on various material and technical basis - lines of complete or separate machines of domestic and foreign execution. From foreign traditionally high quality machines of the PETKUS company, the CIMBRIA concern, which provide optimal cleaning and sorting modes for different crops. From domestic - machines of the Khorolsky and Karlovsky plants, which combine high separation performance and the degree of product cleaning and screening.

Recently, at the Khorolsky Mechanical Plant, machines are being developed that are as close as possible to the features of processing seed grain. Together with the Institute of Agriculture of the Steppe Zone (Dnipro), a technical and technological line for the preparation og high-quality seed was created and tested. The line is equipped with high-precision equipment that provides soft processing without any injury and reducing the varietal and sowing qualities of seeds. Soft and precise processing is achieved by the following techniques:

- horizontal layout of the main machines, their placement on a raised frame;

- a decrease in the height of grain movement;

- moving grain with low-speed (bucket) elevators with plastic shovels;

- sifting mode by means of vibration of working bodies;

- smooth change of the sifting mode;

- free access to any machine for setting up and cleaning.

The line includes the following machines and equipment: flat sieve grain separator BSHM-16; aspiration chamber of the BSH-100.20 brand with a closed air cycle and a diametrical fan; gravity separator PSS with a closed boiling chamber and a fan for drawing air; grain elevators; semiautomatic weighing batcher Norma-S for weighing a given portion in the range of 5-50kg; bag sewing machine; storage hoppers; remote control. The main technical and technological indicators characterizing the operation of the line are shown in Table 2.

The line was tested in the process of harvesting and post-harvest processing of seed material of various varieties of wheat and barley, as well as hybrids and self-pollinated lines of corn from the 2014 harvest. After processing on the line, seeds were obtained with a germination rate of 98-100%, a purity of 98-99.5%, without any injury and damage. The line was serviced by one operator-mechanic; in the case of packing seeds in bags and stacking them on pallets, 4 additional workers were involved.

 Table 2. Technical and technological indicators and characteristics of the line for the processing and preparation of high-quality seed

Indicators

Characteristic

Productivity, t/h:

   - cleaning

   - sorting

   - enrichment

 

8

4

3

Initial seed material

grain crops, grain and oil legumes, corn hybrids and parental components

Appointment

purification from impurities; sorting by size, specific gravity and aerodynamics of the seed; enrichment of fractions; packing of seed units.

Composition - domestic equipment

grain separator, aspirator, gravity separator, batcher, bag sewing machine, bucket elevators, conveyor, storage bins, remote control

Rated capacity, kW, min.

25

The installation of the line was carried out using conventional construction and welding and fastening works, based on the installation and assembly of finished equipment and machines. The machines are located in a typical building with a size of 106,2 m2, and a height of 6,0 m to the ceiling. Special aspiration networks were not installed with the exception of an air duct conncecting the gravity separator with a fan for drawing air and exhausting it outside the building. A receiving hopper for seed material and a storage hopper for waste were also installed behind the building.

The general view of the line is shown in the figure. It is easy to notice the state of compactness and at the same time free access to the main machines and nodes. If necessary, the line can be completed with a calibration machine to obtain individual seed fractions.  

.jpg

Conclusions.

1. In the process of post-harvest processing, the range of technological operations depends on the culture, its condition during harvesting and the purpose. Separation of grain masses in cleaning and sorting modes should be referred to the main operations that occupy the largest volumes in processing. The degree of saturation with various operations is highest when processing corn for seed purposes.

2. Developed and tested a new mechanized line for processing and preparing high quality seed. The line is designed for cleaning-sorting-enrichment of seeds of grain, legumes and oilseeds, including corn hybrids, as well as their parent components, provides soft and precise processing without mechanical damage and injury to the seed. It can be installed and operated in the conditions of a conventional seed farming, includes only domestic production machines.

 

1. .. / .. // . 2013. 3(168). . 31-34.

2. .. / .. // . 2011. 4(142). . 33-36.

3. .. / .. // .: , 1976. 200 .

              New mechanized line and technology for the preparation of high-quality seed  


Kyrpa M.Y., Doctor of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Steppe Agriculture of the National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine

Mishchenko M.I., Board of the company Khorolskiy mechanical plant

Bondar L.N., PhD student

The quality and yield of finished products, especially seed, largely depends on its post-harvest processing technology.  In the processing system, the largest volumes are occupied by the separation of grain masses, their cleaning and sorting. Various machines are offered for these operations, which are primarily designed for large enterprises. For ordinary farms of seed production, the range of offered machines, especially in the complex, is extremely limited. Therefore, a new mechanized line and technology for the preparation og high-quality sowing material for cereals, legumes and oilseeds, as well as corn hybrids and its original forms, is proposed for such farms.

In the technology of growing grain crops, a prerequisite is the use of high-quality seed for sowing. Observing this condition, you can get fast uniform shoots, developed plants with a high level of productivity. It has been established that when sowing with high-quality seeds, field germination increases by 8-12%, the yield increase is 18-20% and more [1-3].

The quality of seeds is determined by various indicators, which can be divided into basic and additional ones. The main ones include those that are established by regulatory documents for finished products - standards, technical conditions, instructions depending on a specific culture. For grain crops, the main indicators are those that characterize the degree of seed germination - germination, germination energy (seed vigor) and growth strength.

Additional indicators are usually taken into account during the processing and preparation of seed, it serve to check the correctness of the technology. These include the size and volume of the seeds, the weight and specific gravity of the seed, their integrity or the degree of injury. Additional indicators are directly related to the main indicators, with the deterioration of the former, as a rule, the latter deteriorate.

Quality indicators largely depend on how the harvesting and post-harvest processing of the seed is carried out. Only if the entire technical and technological system is observed, which is optimal for a particular crop, can high-quality seed be obtained from seed.

The technical and technological system of post-harvest processing includes a number of individual operations that significantly affect the quality of grain. The range of operations and their parameters depend on the characteristics of a particular culture, its condition and purpose. The analysis shows that the most saturated system of post-harvest finishing is in corn when preparing seed (Table 1). Only two of the main operations (conservation and storage of grain in a wet state) are not used in the preparation of seeds of this crop.

Reception and placement of grain. It is a mandatory operation for all crops and grain for any purpose. But it is of particular importance when supplying food and seed grain, with the aim of isolating and forming lots of different quality.


 Table 1. The range of basic technological operations in the system of post-harvest grain processing for various purposes

Operation

Spiked cereals, grain legumes, cereals, sunflower

Corn

grain

seed

grain

seed

Food-technical

Feed

Food-technical

Feed

Reception and placing

+

+

+

+

+

+

Cleaning:

   - pre-cleaning

   - primary

+

+

+

-

+

+

+

+

+

-

+

+

Sorting:

    - main

-   - special

+

-

-

-

+

+

+

-

-

-

+

+

Drying

+

+

+

+

+

+

Thrashing

-

-

-

+

+

+

Canning

+

+

-

+

+

-

Storage:

   - dry grain

   - wet grain

+

-

+

+

+

-

+

-

+

+

+

-

Chemical treatment

+

-

+

+

-

+

Packing

-

-

+

-

-

+

Cleaning. Practically the entire volume of grain coming from the field is subject to preliminary cleaning. Even when harvesting dry grain, preliminary cleaning is necessary to separate impurities that are unstable during storage and to remove dust from the grain mass. The technical and technological feature of the operation is the high productivity of the process, which allows in a short time to process large batches of grain quickly .

Primary cleaning is necessary for food and seed grains and allows to isolate the main grain in the range of passage from the top sieve and exit from the bottom. It differs from the preliminary (pre-cleaning) one both in the operating mode and in the degree of cleaning.

Sorting. Sorting, like cleaning, is based on general technical signs of divisibility and the principles of sorting grain masses. It differs from cleaning in that the main pure grain is divided into separate fractions of different quality. In the classical scheme, for sorting, it is required to have 3 sieves, of which the middle one plays the main role, the rest - for the processing of the grain mass. However, if absolutely clean grain arrives, the sorting function can be performed on two sieves.

In conventional sorting, well-known divisibility criteria are used, first of all, linear dimensions, weight, windage of weevil (seed). When special sorting - specific gravity, shape, surface nature, color, electrical conductivity. This can also include the calibration of the seed of some crops.

Drying. It is an operation that radically affects the quality and safety of products. The importance of drying is especially evident when harvesting late-ripening crops - the germination and seed yield increases, the loss of dry matter during storage decreases. In connection with the requirements of energy saving, the main ways of developing the operation are to reduce the specific consumption of traditional energy materials and the development of alternative energy sources. One of the types of drying is also ventilation in the case when the actual moisture content of the grain is more than equilibrium.

ThrashingIt is carried out in the process of harvesting corn for food and fodder purposes, the ears are threshed during direct combining in the field, as well at the permanent establishment, in the case of transporting the crop from the field. The seed corn is threshed only in the permanent establishment, after the cobs are dried to a dry state.

Canning. Includes operations aimed at a significant and rapid slowdown or complete cessation of biological processes occuring in the grain mass. The conservation effect is most often achieved by sealing and changing the gas composition in intergranular spaces. With such canning, it is possible to add various chemicals that enhance its effectiveness.

Storage. In practice, grain is stored dry and wet conditions. The dry state parameters are determined by the culture, its normative moisture content and storage duration. There is a scientific and practical experience in canning - storage of wet corn grain, which can significantly reduce energy costs, eliminate completely thermal drying when harvesting with a moisture content of 20-40%.

Chemical treatment. A forced technological operation, but at the same time practically necessary, especially for the protection of the seed during storage and sown in the field. It can be combined with the function of stimulating and improving the quality of finished products.

Packing. The operation, despite its technological simplicity, is important in terms of marketing and sales of finished products. Partially fulfills the function of protection and storage duration, primarily of the seed.

The listed range of technological operations must be provided with an appropriate material and technical base.

The analysis shows that of all post-harvest processing operations, the largest volumes fall on the separation of grain masses, their cleaning and sorting.

Separation is carried out on various material and technical basis - lines of complete or separate machines of domestic and foreign execution. From foreign traditionally high quality machines of the PETKUS company, the CIMBRIA concern, which provide optimal cleaning and sorting modes for different crops. From domestic - machines of the Khorolsky and Karlovsky plants, which combine high separation performance and the degree of product cleaning and screening.

Recently, at the Khorolsky Mechanical Plant, machines are being developed that are as close as possible to the features of processing seed grain. Together with the Institute of Agriculture of the Steppe Zone (Dnipro), a technical and technological line for the preparation of high-quality seed was created and tested. The line is equipped with high-precision equipment that provides soft processing without any injury and reducing the varietal and sowing qualities of seeds. Soft and precise processing is achieved by the following techniques:

- horizontal layout of the main machines, their placement on a raised frame;

- a decrease in the height of grain movement;

- moving grain with low-speed (bucket) elevators with plastic shovels;

- sifting mode by means of vibration of working bodies;

- smooth change of the sifting mode;

- free access to any machine for setting up and cleaning.

The line includes the following machines and equipment: flat sieve grain separator BSHM-16; aspiration chamber of the BSH-100.20 brand with a closed air cycle and a diametrical fan; gravity sorting table PSS with a closed boiling chamber and a fan for drawing air; grain elevators; semiautomatic weighing batcher Norma-S for weighing a given portion in the range of 5-50 kg; bag sewing machine; storage hoppers; remote control. The main technical and technological indicators characterizing the operation of the line are shown in Table 2.

The line was tested in the process of harvesting and post-harvest processing of seed material of different varieties of wheat and barley, as well as hybrids and self-pollinated lines of corn from the 2014 harvest. After processing on the line, seeds were obtained with a germination rate of 98-100%, a purity of 98-99.5%, without any injury and damage. The line was serviced by one operator - mechanic; in the case of packing seeds in bags and stacking them on pallets, 4 additional workers were involved.

 Table 2. Technical and technological indicators and characteristics of the line for the processing and preparation of high-quality seed

Indicators

Characteristic

Productivity, t/h:

   - cleaning

   - sorting

   - enrichment

 

8

4

3

Initial seed material

Grain crops, grain and oil legumes, corn hybrids and parental components

Appointment

purification from impurities; sorting by size, specific gravity and aerodynamics of the seed; enrichment of fractions; packing and packaging of seed units

Content - domestic equipment

Grain separator, aspirator, gravity table, batcher, bag sewing machine, bucket elevators, conveyor, storage hoppers, remote control

Rated capacity, kW, min.

25

The installation of the line was carried out using conventional construction and welding and fastening works, based on the installation and assembly of finished equipment and machines. The machines are located in a typical building with a size of 106,2 2 and a height of 6,0 m to the ceiling. Special aspiration networks were not installed with the exception of an air duct connecting the gravity table with a fan for drawing air and exhausting it outside the building. A receiving hopper for seed material and a storage hopper for waste were also installed behind the building.

The general view of the line is shown in the figure. It is easy to notice the state of compactness and at the same time free access to the main machines and nodes. If necessary, the line can be completed with a calibration machine to obtain individual seed fractions. 

.jpg

Conclusions.

1. In the process of post-harvest processing, the range of technological operations depends on the culture, its condition during harvesting and the purpose. Separation of grain masses in cleaning and sorting modes should be referred to the main operations that occupy the largest volumes in processing. The degree of saturation with various operations is highest when processing corn for seed purposes.

2. Developed and tested a new mechanized line for processing and preparing high quality seed. The line is designed for cleaning-sorting-enrichment of seeds of grain, legumes and oilseeds, including corn hybrids, as well as their parent components, provides soft and precise processing without mechanical damage and injury to the seed. It can be installed and operated in the conditions of a conventional seed farming, includes only domestic production machines.

 

1. .. / .. // . 2013. 3(168). . 31-34.

2. .. / .. // . 2011. 4(142). . 33-36.

3. .. / .. // .: , 1976. 200 .