Manufacture of groats Распечатать

    Groats production - the production of cereals and cereal products from grain of various crops. The basis of the technological process is the mechanical separation of the integumentary (ground) tissues (shells) of the grain and the subsequent processing of the kernel and cotyledon. The technique of separating the shells depends on the anatomical features of the grain (the strength of the core and shells, the degree of their attachment to the nucleus, etc.). Successful processing of grain is possible only when its moisture content is 13—15,5%. The general scheme of the technological process consists of the following stages: cleaning grain from impurities; sorting by size; peeling (separation of shell); kernel processing (crushing, polishing, lamination) depending on the type of grain and the type of cereal obtained.          Many cereal plants are equipped with additional equipment and have a more complex scheme for processing grain into cereals. For example, after purification from impurities, the raw materal is subjected to hydrothermal treatment (moistening with water or steam, subsequent moistening and drying), resulting in increased kernel strength, and the shells become more fragile and easier to separate. Hydrothermal treatment increases the stability of cereals during storage.

    Grain is cleaned from impurities on aspirators, separators, triers, destoners, dehullers, magnetic devices, etc. and sorted on sorting machines. The grain is hulled on dehuller machines (barley, oats), peeling boxes (rice grain) or rolling machines (buckwheat, millet), hulling machine with rubber rollers, as well as hollanders, vertical hulling machines, etc. In buckwheat and millet grains, the shells are well separated on rolling machines, and in grain of rice - on peeling boxes and hulling machines. After hulling, the product is winnowed and the insufficiently dehulled grains are again passed through the machines, then sanded to remove the remains of flower pellicles, bran covering, seed coat and germs. All this improves cereals marketability, increases its cooking property and comprehensibility. Some types and varieties of cereals (peas, rice, pearl barley, etc.) are polished on special millstones and hollanders. Ready groats are sorted by size into several fractions (numbers): for example, pearl barley and corn into 5 numbers; Poltavska cereal into 4,barley into 3 numbers.

    In the process of mechanical processing - cleaning and especially hulling and grinding, the kernel of some of the grains is crushed, which reduces the quality of the product. So, when processing buckwheat grain, an unground buckwheat (whole kernel) is obtained and less valuable crushed grain. By-products and wastes - chaff, husking bran, etc. are used for forage or technical purposes. A low-value waste is husk - flower pellicles. It is used for fuel, for the production of furfural, and for other needs.

    Cereal yield, i.e. its amount in % of the mass of processed grain depends on the properties of the grain: size, evenness, content of a good-quality kernel, and in membrane crops (rice, barley, buckwheat, millet, etc.) and on the content of flower pellicle. 

      Groats production - the production of cereals and cereal products from grain of various crops. The basis of the technological process is the mechanical separation of the integumentary (ground) tissues (shells) of the grain and the subsequent processing of the kernel and cotyledon. The technique of separating the shells depends on the anatomical features of the grain (the strength of the core and shells, the degree of their attachment to the nucleus, etc.). Successful processing of grain is possible only when its moisture content is 13-15,5%. The general scheme of the technological process consists of the following stages: cleaning grain from impurities; sorting by size; peeling (separation of shell); kernel processing (crushing, polishing, lamination) depending on the type of grain and the type of cereal obtained.    Many cereal plants are equipped with additional equipment and have a more complex scheme for processing grain into cereals. For example, after purification from impurities, the raw material is subjected to hydrothermal treatment (moistening with water or steam, subsequent moistening and drying), resulting in increased kernel strength, and the shells become more fragile and easier to separate. Hydrothermal treatment increases the stability of cereals during storage.

    Grain is cleaned from impurities on aspirators, separators, triers, destoners, dehullers, magnetic devices, etc. and sorted on sorting machines. The grain is hulled on dehuller machines (barley, oats), peeling boxes (rice grain) or rolling machines (buckwheat, millet), hulling machine with rubber rollers, as well as hollanders, vertical hulling machines, etc. In buckwheat and millet grains, the shells are well separated on rolling machines, and in grain of rice - on peeling boxes and hulling machines. After hulling, the product is winnowed and the insufficiently dehulled grains are again passed through the machines, then sanded to remove the remains of flower pellicles, bran covering, seed coat and germs. All this improves cereals marketability, increases its cooking property and comprehensibility. Some types and varieties of cereals (peas, rice, pearl barley, etc.) are polished on special millstone and hollanders. Ready groats are sorted by size into several fractions (numbers): for example, pearl barley and corn into 5 numbers; Poltavska cereal into 4, barley into 3 numbers.

    In the process of mechanical processing - cleaning and especially hulling and grinding, the kernel of some of the grains is crushed, which reduces the quality of the product. So, when processing buckwheat grain, an unground buckwheat (whole kernel) is obtained and less valuable crushed grain. By-products and wastes - chaff, husking bran, etc. are used for forage or technical purposes. A low-value waste is husk - flower pellicles. It is used for fuel, for the production of furfural, and for other needs.

    Cereal yield, i.e. its amount in % of the mass of processed grain depends on the properties of the grain: size, evenness, content of a good-quality kernel, and in membrane crops (rice, barley, buckwheat, millet, etc.) and on the content of flower pellicle.

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