BEATER SL-40
BEATER SL-40

Beater-separator SL-40 (machine for additional cleaning of sunflower hulls) is designed for separation of oil containing dust from sunflower hulls. The equipment is being installed in the winnow-dehulling blocks (oilseed preparation) of oil extraction plants. After certain modifications (change of screens, change of the rotor and drum speed etc.), the equipment can be applied for screening of sunflower meal and wheat cleaning.


Beater-separator SL-40 (machine for additional cleaning of sunflower hulls) is designed for separation of oil containing dust from sunflower hulls. The equipment is being installed in the winnow-dehulling blocks (oilseed preparation) of oil extraction plants. After certain modifications (change of screens, change of the rotor and drum speed etc.), the equipment can be applied for screening of sunflower meal and wheat cleaning.


Specifications 

Perfomance by hulls,  tons per day

40,0*

Rated capacity,  kW                            primary drive

                                                            screw

15,0

1,1

Speed, r.p.m.                                     rotor

                                                          drum

                                                          screw

620

20

75

Inside diameter of the beater,  mm

420

Beater length,  mm

3200

Reduction of hulls oil content, %           max 

                                                              min

0,5**

0,2**

Screens scavenging interval, sec.

2060

Requirements for compressed air:                                         

operation pressure, mPas

 flowrate, l/min


0,50,6

120130

Overall dimensions, max, mm:               length

                                                               width

                                                               height

4100

880

2100

  Weight,  kg

1770

*There is a possibility of short-run performance improvement (carrying capacity) to 45 tons per day with reducing of the machines qualitative characteristics.

**Reduction level of the oil content depends on the moisture of input product (optimal husk moisture 10-11% with sunflower seeds moisture 6,8-7,2%). Index of oil content also decreases with reduction of moisture. Besides that, in consequence of the specific of machine construction designed mostly for extraction of oil containing dust, ineffective selection of whole kernels and kernel parts may happen. Some parts of size larger than 2,5 mm considerably increase product oil content (these parts should be removed in technological process before beater-separator as far as possible).


Distinguishing features from the analogue in accordance with technological process: 


Reliability rate:

  • more load lifting bearing parts of the drum are applied, that increases their operating lifetime;

  • auger shaft rigidity is increased.

 
Servicing and repairability:

  • the diameter of inspection window on the side of primary drive is enlarged that provides an opportunity to replace bearing cups without complete disassembly of beater;

  • reduced mass of the screening cylinders manual component replacement became easier;

  • pneumatic cylinder is passed out of the functional area (outward of the machine).

 
List equipment on a single order:

  • chain shutter on inlet nozzle;

  • operating desk.

 
Ergonomic and aesthetic characteristics of the machine are improved.


Structure and Functioning


The machine consists of the following key components: body frame 1, beater 2, basket 3, screw 4, loader 5, unloader 6, loading nozzles 7 and unloading nozzles 8, doors 9, shutter 10, drivers 11 and 12, chain tensioner 13, aspiration system 14, barriers 15 and 16 (pic.1 and pic. 2).


Beater 2, the basic element of the machine, is arranged in body frame 1. It consists of rotor with hammers 17 (which is installed in bearing blocks fixed on the side walls of the body frame 1) and drum 18, which is installed in bearing blocks fixed on rotor shaft. In such a way different speed of rotor and drum is provided. Primary drive provides rotor spinning by V-belt transmission. Standard bar engines with capacity 15,0 kW are applied for drive. V-belts 19 tension derives from tension external screws 20. Drum rotation is accomplished by drive through V-belt transmission, reduction gear 21, chain transmission 22. V-belts 23 tension derives from tension external screws 24, chain tension from chain tensioner 13. Screw is also arranged in bearing blocks fixed on the head walls of the body frame 1. Screw rotation is accomplished by reduction gear motor. Product enters through loading nozzle 7, loader 5 to the functional area, where rotational and axial movements are combined by hammers. Intensive interference in the spaces between screen and rotor induces crushing of the product and further separation of oil containing mixture which is unloading by the screw. The hulls are transferred due to the shovels on the rotor and derived from machine through unloader and unloading nozzle. 


Attention! If there is a need in replacement of the one hammer on the rotor 17 for any reason, the opposite hummer also has to be changed. If there is such a possibility, it is also recommended to replace a complete set. After the replacement of hammers rotor has to be balanced. 


Drum 18 (pic. 2a) consists of input 25, output 26 and screening drums, which are connected in the vertical plane. Screening drum consists of two frames 27 and 28, which are connected in horizontal plane with changeable screens fixed on them. Correct disassembly procedure of screening cylinder starts from dismounting of frames 27 on the side of loader. Threaded holes to declutching screw-bolts are also anticipated on body frames for simplification of bearing blocks disassembling. Simplified dismounting procedure is shown on the pic.2a. Aspiration system (pic.3) serves to removal of product from the sieves openings. It consists of duct 37 with drilled holes, which extends along the entire length of the machine, and pneumatic cylinder 38. Due to pneumatic cylinder, reciprocating moving towards body frame is effected. The air is conducted through air-preparation unit 39 and pneumatic distributors 40. Conveying speed and pause duration are regulated by timing relay and inductors depending on dirt retention level of sieves.  

  

Operating efficiency SL-40


In the original wording of SL-40 operations manual were specified efficiency characteristics towards the reduction of hulls oil content that can be tested by laboratory method [7]. During the research equal amount of hulls particles were extracted by tweezers from input and output mixtures and measurements of oil content were performed. Results were showing reduction of oil content from 0,2 to 0,5% with the following frequency ratio:




Reduction of hulls oil content in SL-40 specifications by 0,1% in figures means the following:


Table 1

Reduction of hulls oil content 
% 0,1 0,5
Additionally extracted oil from 1 ton of hulls
kg
1 5
Performance of hulls processing 
kg per day
40000 40000
Additionally extracted oilkg per day
40 200
Operating regime
days per year 
320 320
Additionally extracted oil
kg per year
12800 64000

This measuring method did not take into account all the oil containing dust and kernel parts that stayed in the input hulls mixture, but it has revealed the following correspondence the higher hulls oil content at the input, the higher effectiveness of SL-40 functional operation.


Hulls mixture after separation of kernel fraction on NVH dehulling machine enters to the SL-40 input. The mixture contains hulls and oil containing dust with kernel chops on it. NVH specifications provide the following characteristics for hulls mixture:

  • kernel content in the hulls  - max. 1 %;

  • hulls oil content without kernel max. 1,2% above botanical;

  • hulls content in the kernel max. 10%.

Calculation of the maximum additional oil extraction based on hulls mixture characteristics after NVH:


Table 2

Hulls content in seeds
% 24,50
Hulls in 1 ton of seeds
kg 245,00
Kernels in 1 ton of seeds
kg
755,00
Kernel content in the hulls after NVH 
% 1,00
Hulls content in the kernel after NVH 
% 10,00
Hulls in the seeds to pressing department
kg
75,50
Hulls to cleaning
kg
169,50
Kernels in the hulls to cleaning
kg
1,70
Kernels oil content 
% 52,10
Additional oil from 1 ton of seeds 
kg
0,88
Additional oil from 1 ton of hulls mixture 
kg
5,16

Characteristics of hulls mixture at the output of NVH were detected several tens of years ago for R1-MS-2T (NVH analogy) for sunflower varieties which were available at that time. Over the last years early-season certified and hybrid sunflower seeds with high oil content are domesticated. New sunflower varieties have distinguished chemical composition of kernel, balance of hydrophobic (fatty) and hydrophilic (non-fatty) parts of the kernel has changed. Sunflower seeds became smaller, but with higher oil content and lower huskness. Averagely, sunflower seeds huskness equal to 23-26%. Hulls are thin and tightly adjoin the kernel, air space between kernel and hulls near-zero, that is why botanical oil content increases from 1,8-2,5% to 2,85 - 3,2% [3]. Such morphological traits of sunflower seeds structure complicate dehulling process and deteriorate separation of hulls from the kernels process. Besides that increased botanical oil content causes enhanced adhering of oil containing dust to the hulls during separation process. Consequently, oil-extraction enterprises faced a problem of enhanced oil loss (up to 5% and higher) with treated hulls during processing of modern sunflower seeds varieties. [2], [8]


In the light of the foregoing, content of hulls mixture became more oil-yielding and finally the following results were obtained:

Measurement data on performance and yield product content from 

SL-40

Yield per 1 ton of hulls, kg

Yield per 1 ton of seeds, at the rate of 17,12% of hulls mixture from 1 ton of seeds, kg

Performance of hulls processing
tons per day
40
Performance of hulls processing 
kg per hour
    1 667     1 000,00  
Oil containing product yield from SL-40 per hour
kg 90          54,00                     9,24  
Yield content:  oil containing dust Ø < 1 mm
% 30          16,20                     2,77  
chop Ø < 2,5 mm
% 3            1,62                     0,28  
small hulls
% 67          36,18                     6,19  
Oil yield from oil containing product
% 14,5            7,83                     1,34  

Totally, application of SL-40 in actual practice allowed to get additionally 1,34 kg of oil and 7,9 kg of sunflower meal on every ton of sunflower seeds, with inconspicuous increase (max. 0,8%) of mixture huskness for pressing department.

Kernels from the ton of seeds 
kg
       755,00  
Hulls with kernel after NVH
kg
         75,50  
Additionally received kernel from SL-40
kg
           3,05  
Additionally received hulls from SL-40
kg
           6,19  
Total kernel
kg
       758,05  
Total hulls
kg
         81,69  
Hulls content in the mixture for pressing department after NVH
%          10,00  
Hulls content in the mixture for pressing department after SL-40
%          10,78  
Additional oil yield SL-40 
kg
           1,34  
Additional sunflower meal yield SL-40
kg
           7,90  

    Payback calculation for Beater SL-40

Price of the beater SL-40 for 01.09.2015UAH
        352 800,00  
Expenditures for arrangement into technological process (installation, screws, conveyors etc.)
UAH
        300 000,00  
Total expenditures for SL-40
UAH
        652 800,00  
dollar exchange rate
UAH/$
                  22,10  
Performance of hulls processing 
tons per day
                  40,00  
Quantity of seeds for processing per day, at the rate of 17,12% of hulls mixture from 1 ton of seeds, kg
tons
                233,64  
Oil from 1 ton of hulls
kg                     7,83  
Additionally extracted oil 
kg per day
                313,20  
Operating regime
days per year
                320,00  
Additionally extracted oil
tons per hour
                100,22  
Unrefined sunflower oil wholesale price FOB
USD/ton
                760,00  
Price for annual output
USD           76 170,24  
Price for annual output
UAH
     1 683 362,30  
Engines power rating (useful mechanical power at shaft)
kW
                  16,10  
Calculated operational load of designed
%                   75,00  
Electric power consumption under normal operation
kWh
                  13,57  
Cost of energy
UAH/kWh
                    1,53  
USD/kWh                     0,07  
Electric energy consumption
kW per hour
        104 197,75  
Total cost of energy
UAH per year
        159 755,99  
Profit
UAH per year
     1 523 606,31  
Pay-back period
months
                    5,14  

Pay-back graph for SL-40 




Y-line months; X-line number of days per year with full rate of operation.


    The calculation performed as an indication and it does not take into account the following:


  • other operating expenditures (except energy consumption);

  • in the calculation of energy consumption calculated rates are 13,57 kW per hour, while in actual practice measurements are 10-11 kW per hour, but along with this energy consumption on additional transportation, which is different for every specific equipment arrangement, is not accounted;

  • VAT influence (recovery at export) to the final profitability (domestic prices are defined inc. VAT) is not considered;

  • secondary income from sunflower meal sale is not considered;

  • particular specifics of manufacturer that can improve the totals: advanced oil processing (refining), prepackaging operation, own retail trade.


Expenditures for implementation (adoption into technological process) are estimated coarsely and may vary depending on particular object and quantity of beaters.


Please consider abovementioned information and we invite you technologists, manufacturers, heads of enterprises for the further discussion of such technological concept and its applicability at your productive facilities. For all questions connected with SL-40 operation you may contact our specialists. We also recommend to contact Alexander Alexandrov, Director of IPC Vektor, on whose initiative our plant set up the production of SL-40. 


Information materials:


[1]. Oil loss with hulls is determined by oil content in the hulls that depends on botanical hulls oil content, oiling of hulls in winnow-dehulling block (oilseed preparation) and loss of kernel with hulls. Botanical hulls oil content is lipid content in hulls in the intact undamaged sunflower seeds. Botanical hulls oil content in seeds of high oleic varieties increases in the wake of general seeds oil content rising and is equal to 1,8-2,5 %. Oiling of hulls means increasing of lipid content in hulls. The reason of oiling lies in absorbing of oil by hulls (sorption) during its contact with crushed kernels in dehulling processes, during screening and transportation of dehulled product.


V. Shcherbakov, TECHNOLOGY OF VEGETABLE OILS PRODUCTION, Moscow "Kolos", 1992

 

[2]. Oil extraction enterprises faced a problem of enhanced oil loss (up to 5% and higher) with hulls during processing of modern sunflower seeds varieties. The basic waste of oil with hulls consists of the following factors: botanical oil content, oiling of hulls during harvesting and transporting, damage of seeds with oiling of hulls at cleaning, drying and storage sections, as well as during processes of dehulling and separation of dehulled product, waste of kernel with hulls, including kernel parts adherent with hulls. In addition to the above, in hybrid sunflower seeds air space between kernel and hulls is absent, while hulls elasticity is enhanced. In consequence of processing such seeds are poorly dehulling in hummer mills, as well as enhanced hulls particles content adherent with kernel parts is observed in outgoing hulls. 


V. Derevenko, DScTech, prof., Head of Processes and devices of food manufactures Department; Y. Tkachenko, Kuban State Technological University; G. Glushchenko, Ekotechprom LLC

WAYS TO REDUCE OIL LOSS WITH HULLS DURING SUNFLOWER SEEDS PROCESSING,  10 /2012 OILS and FATS


[3]. Over the last years early-season certified and hybrid sunflower seeds with high oil content are domesticated. New sunflower varieties have distinguished chemical composition of kernel, balance of hydrophobic (fatty) and hydrophilic (non-fatty) parts of the kernel, has changed. Sunflower seeds became smaller, but with higher oil content and lower hulls content. Averagely, sunflower seeds hulls content equal to 23-26%. Hulls are thin and tightly adjoin the kernel, air space between kernel and hulls near-zero, that is why botanical oil content increases from 1,8-2,5% to 2,85 - 3,2%. The content of free nitrogen extract and ash is increased. Such morphological traits of sunflower seeds structure complicate dehulling process and deteriorate separation of hulls from the kernels process.

Basic qualitative characteristics of 30 test pieces of seeds, kernel, sunflower meal and hulls were analysed considering their physico-chemical and technological peculiarities Two plants in every region were chosen

Indicator name

Peresichne Oil Extraction Plant

Prykolotne 

Oil Extraction Plant

seeds

kernel

sunflower meal

seeds

kernel

sunflower meal

Impurity content, %

3,28

1,33

1,33

3,99

0,82

0,82

Moisture, %

5,34

4,96

8,47

4,17

3,54

10,78

Hulls content,%

24,50

10,56

10,56

25,44

6,84

6,81

Oil content,%

48,12

52,10

1,40

47,95

56,17

1,54

Protein content, %

15,30

16,87

36,67

15,63

17,10

38,45

S. Yevtushenko, INFLUENCE OF QUALITY INDICATORS OF RAW MATERIALS AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES TO THE PROTEIN CONTENT IN SUNFLOWER SEEDS AND ITS RECYCLING PRODUCTS, prepared by National Technical University Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute, 3, 2008


[4]. On the basis of received data the following conclusion can be made: hybrids Ukrainian F1 and NK Brio have extremely thin air space between kernel and hulls, hybrids Jaguar F1 and NK Delfi have no air space at all. Reduction and absence of air space deteriorates seeds dehulling capability. This leads to expansion in the number of hulls which are hardly separated from kernels during dehulling, that results in transfer of hulls to kernels and to its products of processing sunflower meal and oil cake; deterioration of their qualitative characteristics.


S. Teslenko, E. Vryukalo, L. Perevalov, PECULIARITIES OF THE DEHULLING OF SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS UNDER THE REFRIGERATION, prepared by National Technical University Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute, 14 (1123), 2015


[5]. Exists a large number of sunflower varieties with different seeds size, thickness and hulls content. New varieties appear all the time due to selection. Selection is aimed at increasing of oil content in seeds usually with simultaneous reduction of hulls content. At first sight it might seem positive for dehulling technology and hulls removal. Unfortunately, in broad lines we may say almost the reverse the higher oil content in seeds (and correspondingly lower hulls content), the harder dehulling process. Results of hulls features research, in particular dehulling characteristics, were published in many scientific studies, for example in the following article Beaiigiiillaurae A., Architecture des coques de tournesol OLEOSCOPE, Bulletin du CETIOM, 1982, 8, 20-21 7/42. The author established that hulls are formed by two types of cells combinations. Depending on the sunflower variety, proportion of these two types is changing one of the types significantly assists dehulling (another words it makes hulls to be cracked over the heavy stress) while the other one not. Therefore proportion of these two types of cells combinations in hulls determines general dehulling capability. Russian author E. Koshevoy in his study Technological equipment for vegetable oil production enterprises (St. Petersburg, GIORD, 2002) determines 3 types of sunflower seeds:


  • hulls of first-type seeds are broke into 2-3 large parts which are easily separated from kernels;

  • hulls of second-type seeds are broke into 6-8 parts which are kept in kernels;

  • hulls of third-type seeds are broke into lots of parts, mostly hulls are kept in kernels, besides that kernels are fell to pieces.


The third type is typical for sunflower varieties with high oil content. Straight-line correlation was noticed between dehulling capability and seeds size (the larger seeds, the easier dehulling). Consequently better results can be reached with large seeds and, what is more important, with equal size (as selection of screens in separators depends on seeds size). Dehulling parameter degradation is observed during processing of poorly dehulling sunflower seeds hulls content in the kernel fraction and oil content in the hulls are increasing.


Hulls dehulling and separation http://farmet.com.ua/?page_id=210


[6]. Sunflower seeds hybrids also have thin air space between kernel and hulls and small size. Weight of 1000 pieces of hybrid seeds (especially old selection) varied of about 50-55 g. against 65-70 g. for genetically modified seeds. Hybrids of old selection did not have air space between kernel and hulls at all. In the number of hybrid seeds hulls inosculates with kernel and hardly separates during dehulling.


Experience of sunflower seeds processing under production conditions shows that hybrid seeds are 15-30% worse dehulled than genetically modified seeds. That deteriorates dehulled product quality, increases content of whole and unhulled seeds, chop and oil containing dust, and results in the increasing of oil loss with hulls.


L. Shazzo, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Kuban State Technological University; A. Gyulushanyan, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Kuban State Technological University; L. Mhitaryants, Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Kuban State Technological University

CURRENT STATE OF THE MACHINERY AND PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES OF MODERN SUNFLOWER SEEDS SELECTION


[7]. Oil-bearing seeds. Methods of oil content determination. GOST 10857-64


[8].  A. Alexandrov, Director of IPC Vektor, Innovative solutions in oil extraction Fat-and-oil complex, 1(44), March 2014



-40